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War And Policy

War and peace continue to play an enduring and important role in politics, particularly in international relations. What causes war? What are the different types of war? Relevance of force, deterrence, coercion, and war as political tools in the 21st century. How do we understand the changing nature of warfare in the face of rapid developments in technology and changes in society? How do nations meet their security needs in an environment of technology denials in various forms? What are the principles that govern national policies and war? What does international law, particularly the IHL have to say about current conflicts and wars? Why do wars begin and who initiates them? Only by understanding and looking for answers to these questions can we become better equipped to manage conflicts and wars and attain peace.

Course Objectives:

  • To introduce participants to the domain of warfare and conflict
  • To enable participants to differentiate and conceptualise the various typologies of wars
  • To help the participants understand the causes of war
  • To evaluate and analyse current wars with perspectives learned in the course
  • To understand the changing nature of warfare through case studies
  • To familiarise participants with how technology is is a critical influence in modern warfare and hence, in national policies
  • To understand the interdependencies of economy, technology, and war in national policy making
  • To introduce to the participants the principles and ethics that govern over warfare and the application of International Humanitarian Law (IHL)

Expected Learning Outcomes:

  • Critical thinking on all matters related to the domain of warfare
  • Understand the types, causes, and sources of conflicts and wars
  • Understand the length and breadth of various theories used to explain conflict
  • Ability to analyse the linkage of politics to war and evaluate policy-making and policy implementation within the context of a given situation
  • Understanding various institutions and stakeholders involved in warfare
  • Differentiate between different armed conflicts
  • Understand various policy tools in the context of contemporary conflict challenges
  • Familiarize participants to an Indian perspective on warfare, India’s security challenges and India’s foreign policy in times of war and conflict

What this course includes:

  • 15 hours of live webinar and discussion with the faculty
  • Access to the webinar video
  • In-class activities
  • Reading Materials will be recommended.
  • Certificate of completion

Session 1: Understanding War and Policy

This session will introduce the participants to the historical and political concepts of war and address fundamental questions such as what war is, why nations fight and how should war be defined. Conflict and war in human history will be discussed using critical events like the Peloponnesian war and the Treaty of Westphalia and their impact and application to the establishment of modern states. The interaction will give the participants an insight into the theories of International Relations and the perspectives of George Herbert Mead, Thomas Hobbes, Kautilya, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Hans Morgenthau, Kenneth Waltz etc. Breaking away from the typical Euro-centric narrative, the session will delve into the Asian civilizational history including China’s warring states period and set the tone for understanding war from an Indian perspective. The session will also take a brief look at the international system and international organizations like the League of Nations and the UN and their role in prevention of war.

Session 2: Ethics, Morals, and Laws of War

This session will discuss the conduct of war and its ethical dimensions. The participants will be introduced to the basics of International Human Rights Law, International Humanitarian Law (jus in bello) and jus ad bellum. The session will encourage the participants to analyse its effectiveness and compliance or the lack thereof through case studies of wars in Kosovo, Rwanda, Sri Lanka etc. from an International Humanitarian Law perspective.

Session 3: Nature of Warfare, Military Strategy and National Policy

This session will focus on the evolving nature of war in the 20th and 21st centuries. Decline in interstate wars (rise in proxy wars) and the rise of non-state actors will be studied to understand how these impact national policies. Concepts of deterrence, arms race, security dilemma, and balance of power will be studied – conceptual change from being ready to fight wars to preventing wars.

Session 4: National Security, Foreign Policy, War Policy and Strategies

This session will focus on the analysis of conflicts and wars through the lens of a state’s national security priorities, foreign policy, current geopolitical climate and international system. Participants will be introduced to the rationale behind a state’s decision to engage in armed conflict through the study of strategy, war policy, and ethics by way of exploring the perspectives of theorists like Clausewitz, Machiavelli, Sun Tzu, Chanakya and Thiruvalluvar. Case studies like the Arab-Israel conflict, the India-China war, Israel-Palestine conflict and the Azerbaijan-Armenia war will be taken up to provide participants with an in-depth analysis on this topic. The different types of wars, conflict dynamics and changing nature of warfare, covered earlier, will be examined for its impact on policy.

Session 5: Technology in War and Policy

Picking off from where the previous session concludes, the final session in the War and Policy capsule will focus on the overbearing influence of technology in the conduct of war and as a critical policy tool for leading powers. The historical trajectory of the use of technology in war and its role in determining current conflicts and politics will be explored. Participants will be introduced to concepts such as technology denial and technology dominance and be able to analyse how technical expertise, technological sovereignty and economic sovereignty influence wars and their outcomes. Towards the end of the session, participants will be exposed to an analysis of India’s national security challenges and the strategies necessary to overcome them. This section will also explore the efficacy and limits of policy in the face of contemporary conflict challenges.

Guest Lectures

Dr. Andreas Herberg-Rothe

Topic - Weapon Bearers: Soldiers, Mercenaries, Warriors/Fighters, Warlords, Child Soldiers, Partisans, Terrorists

Ambassador TCA Raghavan

Topic – India-Pakistan Wars and their impact on the Foreign Policies of India and Pakistan

Faculty


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Air Marshal M Matheswaran AVSM VM Ph.D (Retd)

Air Marshal M Matheswaran is an Indian Air Force veteran with 39 years of service, a distinguished fighter pilot and an Experimental Test Pilot. He has held many senior operational and command appointments including Senior Air Staff Officer of the Eastern Air Command. He was the Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff responsible for Policy, Plans, and Force Development. He has a PhD from the University of Madras, Chennai, is an alumnus of the National Defence College, New Delhi and is a Senior Fellow in International and National Security from the Harvard Kennedy School. He is the founder- President of The Peninsula Foundation.

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Dr Sunod Jacob

Dr. Sunod Jacob is currently serving as Senior Fellow for International Law & Multilateralism at TPF. Prior to his current portfolio, he has served as Associate Professor (Law) GD Goenka University; Assistant Professor (Law), ITM University; Legal Adviser to the ICRC; Senior Research Fellow (Law) University of Madras. He holds a Doctorate in law and master’s in public international law from the University of Madras. He has served as the lead researcher of the Customary International Humanitarian Law study for India state practice (2008-2014). He has also served as an expert resource person in Track 1 and Track 2 forums across South Asia and Southeast Asia.

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Major Gen Alok Deb SC, VSM (Retd)

Major General Alok Deb is an Indian Army veteran with close to four decades of service and tenures in diverse operational areas. He holds an MA in Defence Studies from DSSC Wellington and has two M Phil degrees in Defence and Strategic Studies, after qualifying on the Higher Command and National Defence College courses. He has wide expertise in handling operations, logistics and managing human resources. General Deb has been an instructor at the Indian Military Academy, Brigade Major of an Infantry Brigade and Colonel (Plans) of a Strike Corps. He was the Force Military Personnel Officer on the staff at UNIFIL Lebanon in 2005-6. As Commanding Officer of an artillery regiment in the Kargil War, he was decorated for gallantry and his unit was awarded the COAS Unit Citation and Honour Title “Kargil”.

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Rear Admiral Sudarshan Y Shrikhande AVSM, IN (Retd)

Rear Admiral Shrikhande retired in 2016 after 36 years in the Indian Navy. He is a graduate of NDA and was commissioned on 01 Jul 1980. He is also a graduate of both the Soviet Naval War College (1988) and the U.S. Naval War College (2003) and was the defence attaché in Australia. As a flag officer, he served as head of Naval Intelligence, as chief of staff of the Indian Navy’s training command, in various joint staff positions, and in the Strategic Forces Command among others. He is an ASW specialist and has commanded three ships and spent several years at sea in other ships. He is a graduate of the Naval Higher Command Courses at the College of Naval Warfare, Mumbai as well as of the US Naval War College (Class of 2003), Newport, Rhode Island, where he was the first foreign officer to graduate with the highest distinction, was class president and was awarded the “Robert Bateman” and “Jerome E Levy” first prizes and the “James Forrestal” Seminar prize.

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Air Marshal Anil Khosla PVSM, AVSM, VM, (Retd)

Air Marshal Anil Khosla PVSM AVSM VM retired as the Vice Chief of the Air Staff in 2019 after an illustrious career spanning four decades. The Air Marshal was commissioned in the Fighter stream of the Indian Air Force in the year 1979 and had more than 4000 hours of accident-free flying mainly on Jaguar, Mig-21 and Kiran aircraft. He is also a postgraduate from Defence Services Staff College and holds two M Phil degrees in military studies. Air Officer had vast instructional experience and was a Directing Staff at prestigious institutions like Tactics and Combat Development Establishment (TACDE) and Flying Instructors School (FIS). He commanded a Jaguar squadron and two frontline bases of the IAF. During his service, Air Marshal Khosla has held various appointments including Senior Air Staff Officer, Central Air Command, Director General Air (Operations) at Air HQ (Vayu Bhawan), Director General (Inspection & Safety) at Air HQ (RK Puram) and Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Eastern Air Command.

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Dr Chetan Singai

Dr Chetan Singai is an Associate Professor at the Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru. He obtained his doctoral degree (PhD) from the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bengaluru, India. He holds an MPhil in Law and Governance and a master’s in political science from Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He received the prestigious Erasmus Mundus Scholarship to pursue a Master’s in Lifelong Learning: Policy and Management, a joint degree from the University of London (UK), the University of Aarhus (Denmark) and the University of Deusto (Spain). Chetan has worked as an Assistant Professor at the National Law School of India University. He has been a DAAD visiting faculty at Julius-Maximilians-University of Wurzburg, Germany, from 2014 to 2017. He is a recipient of the Social Justice Medal awarded by the Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India, for his service towards Human Rights and Women Empowerment by the Hon’ble Chief Justice of India in 2007.

Guest Speakers


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Professor Andrei Herberg Rothe

Dr Andreas Herberg-Rothe is an internationally recognized Clausewitz scholar, working as a senior lecturer at the faculty of social and cultural studies at the University of Applied Sciences, Fulda. He is teaching and doing research in the field of 'Violence and Peace in World Society'. He was a private lecturer of Political Science at the Institute for Social Sciences, Humboldt-University Berlin (up to 2012). He was an associate of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme “The changing character of War” (2004-2005) and convener (together with Hew Strachan) of the conference “Clausewitz in the 21st century” (Oxford 2005). He was a visiting fellow at the London School of Economics and Political Science, Centre for International Studies (2005-2006).

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Ambassador M Ganapathi IFS (Retd)

Ambassador M Ganapathi was the Former Secretary (West) in the Ministry of External Affairs. His illustrious career in the Indian Foreign Service began in 1975. In the course of his diplomatic career, he has held a wide range of overseas assignments. He has served in Indian Diplomatic Missions in Moscow (USSR: 1977-78); Sofia (1978-82); Singapore (1982-82); London (1988-91 as Counsellor); Belgrade (1991-93 as Counsellor/Charge D'Affaires); Moscow (Russian Federation; 1994-98 as Counsellor/Minister/Deputy Chief of Mission); Sydney (2001-2005; as Consul General of India) and Kuwait (2005-2008; as Ambassador). He has also served in the Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi from 1985-88 as Deputy Secretary (ASEAN and Pacific), Private Secretary to the Minister of State for External Affairs, Private Secretary to the Minister of State for Finance) and from 1998-2001 as Joint Secretary, Foreign Service Institute (1998) and Joint Secretary (Europe East (1999-2001). High Commissioner Ganapathi took up his assignment as High Commissioner of India in Mauritius on September 9, 2008 and retired as Secretary (West) in the Ministry of External Affairs. He is currently a Member of the Chennai Centre for China Studies.

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Ambassador TCA Raghavan IFS (Retd)

Dr T.C.A Raghavan was the Former Director-General of the Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA). He retired from the Indian Foreign Service in December 2015 in his last assignment as the Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan (2013-15). He had earlier served as Deputy High Commissioner in Pakistan (2003-2007) and High Commissioner to Singapore from 2009 to 2013.

Dr Raghavan was the Joint Secretary dealing with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran from 2007 to 2009 in the Ministry of External Affairs. He has also served in Kuwait, the United Kingdom, and Bhutan. Some of the earlier posts held in the Ministry of External Affairs include the Director of the Office of the External Affairs Minister (2000-2003). He is the author of “Attendant Lords, Bairam Khan and Abdur Rahim- Courtiers and Poets in Mughal India”, “The People Next Door- The Curious History of India’s relations with Pakistan” and “History Men: Jadunath Sarkar, G.S. Sardesai, Raghubir Sinh and their quest for India's Past".

Duration 15 hours of Live Webinar
Course Timing 04:30 PM - 07:30 PM IST
Live Chat Enabled
Course Start Date 24 February 2022
Early Bird Offer (Students & Researchers) until 17th Feb 2022 1999.00
Students (U.G., P.G., Civil Service Aspirants), Researchers and Academic Faculty 3999.00
General Fees (Early Bird Offer of 50% Discount till 17th Feb, 2022) 7999.00
For Institutional Registration, Contact
researchdirector@thepeninsula.org.in.